How much salt should be added to animal feed?
Salt cheap, animal feed formula design is easy to ignore the standard level of addition, but this practice can not guarantee never error.
Salt is an effective raw material for human history to know very early. In ancient times, salt was used as a form of payment that was sufficient to prove its importance. Development to today, salt has been quite cheap, in the world production is very rich. Its role in nutrition has continued to this day, although the division division in the design of animal feed to its level and did not make too much thought.
Indeed, the golden rule of adding salt to all types of pigs, poultry diets is added by 0.5%, which has been used in the feed industry for decades. Today, this rule is still applicable, but the existing knowledge promotes the study of the classification of different animal species and the standard addition levels in special cases.
Sodium and chlorine
The salt is added to meet the animal's demand for sodium and chlorine. According to the NRC, the required level of salt in all types of pig and poultry is 0.10% -0.25%. Assuming that the pure salt has a sodium level of 39.5% and a chlorine level of 60.5%, a 0.5% salt is added to provide about 0.20% sodium and 0.30% chlorine. Therefore, the golden rule of salt in animal feed is to add 0.5% to meet the needs of animals. Excessive chlorine will be removed from the body through the urine.
Simply put, sodium and chlorine are the main electrolytes that maintain the electrochemical gradient inside and outside the cell membrane. Nutrient from the intestine to the blood process of digestion, absorption, transport can not be separated from sodium and chlorine. They are also conducive to the maintenance of blood volume and blood pressure, involved in the renin - angiotensin - aldosterone system. From these functions, salt for the organization and the maintenance of life are very important.
A serious lack of sodium and chlorine will cause brain edema, epilepsy, coma, brain damage, and death. Mild deficiency has been shown to result in a decline in all animal productivity. Today, it is only possible that errors in feed mix or design will cause a lack of sodium and chlorine. This error is not so rare in the imagination, once found too late. animal feed In most cases are not enough to add, resulting in poor productivity and profit decline.
On the other hand, animals can adapt to high concentrations of salt in the diet. Studies have shown that growing pigs can accommodate 8% salt levels in diets. But in order to cope with this high level of salt and keep growing, animals need to consume large amounts of fresh water. Conversely, if the water supply is blocked or the salt is contained in the water, the pig can not be adapted even if the salt level is 1% in the diet. The adaptability of poultry to salt is less than that of pigs, especially for laying hens, because they can affect the quality of laying.
In many parts of the world, the supply of animal drinking water can only be used for saline. Coastal seawater levels of sodium up to 200mg / L, some places even higher. In this case, the recipe design must take into account the salt levels in the drinking water. Specifically, by appropriately reducing the proportion of salt in the feed, or to avoid the use of salt-rich raw materials (such as fish meal, whey powder, blood meal, etc.). Otherwise, the animals will be in an ineffective detoxification cycle that only delays poisoning, at the subclinical stage. Salt mild poisoning, animals often appear mild diarrhea, and due to intestinal imbalance of anions and cations, diarrhea will continue. Severe poisoning, animals will try to increase the amount of seawater to detoxify, but this will only increase poisoning.
Newborn or hatching animals, if the dietary sodium, chlorine levels are high risk, because these small animals do not know how to adjust the amount of drinking water. In view of this, the cup drinking fountains relative to the nipple type drinking fountain better. In addition, in the first two days of birth, animal feed keep the nipple drinking device continuous dripping state, can help animals find identify drinking water position.
If light salt poisoning can be avoided, salt can be used as a very cheap growth promoter for all animals because it can improve the palatability of the feed. Of course, if animals have a tendency to diarrhea, excessive salt will lead to soft stools, but if not pathogenic origin of diarrhea, salt growth, production is still effective.
Feeding enough salt for breeding animals is important because it can compensate for sowing during pregnancy and palatability for lactating diets. On the contrary, laying hens need to feed enough salt to meet their demand for chlorine, and then add chlorine-free sodium source to meet its demand for sodium.
Rich in sodium, chlorine raw materials are fish meal, whey powder and blood powder. In fact, in the expensive feed because of the combination of these raw materials, the dietary sodium, chlorine levels have been beyond the needs of animals. It is critical to provide enough fresh water for young animals. If the animal is kept, only the sea can be provided to drink, these raw materials should be prohibited.
Blood in the sodium, chlorine levels were 5%, 2%, but the fish meal in both of which are less than 1%. Meat powder sodium and chlorine levels similar to fish meal, but the formula design of these sodium and chlorine levels are included. In addition, animal feed other commonly used raw material whey powder sodium, chlorine levels were 1%, 1.5%. Dehydrated whey powder and other whey products in the sodium, chlorine levels may be higher, depending on the processing of protein, the actual content of ash.
to sum up
Because of the important role of sodium and chlorine in life and reproduction, salt is still a very important raw material. Salt is a very cheap raw material to meet the needs of animals for sodium and chlorine. animal feed For areas where there is no fresh water supply, salt levels in animal diets are even more important. Drinking water, feed intake of salt in order to improve the animal's productivity and reduce diarrhea.
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