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Strategic Feed Ingredients Called Fish Meal
- Jun 10, 2017 -

Fishmeal and fish oil have been regarded as commodities and are now positioned as a strategic feed ingredient on the market. They are increasingly being used to meet the increasingly demanding nutritional needs of young animals or pregnant animals. Their high value in animal feed is not only limited to the direct contribution to the growth of animals, especially the micronutrients they provide can maintain good physiological functions of the animals and are therefore known. The essential amino acids of fishmeal are highly bioavailable and rich in lysine and methionine. Food and Agriculture Organization [5] and Windsor and Barlow (1981) say fishmeal can also provide a variety of minerals, including calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, selenium and various vitamins such as vitamins B1, B2, B6 and B12. As a feedstock, fishmeal and fish oil are more nutritious and nutritious, providing nutrition for the most critical stages of the animal's life cycle and achieving optimal physiological performance.


Fishmeal - not only provides protein and fat


Fishmeal and fish oil were initially used in pigs and poultry feed because fishmeal could provide a high level of protein, rich in amino acids, and extremely easy to digest and absorb. In 2011, Cho & Kim compared fishmeal with other animal feedstuffs, such as meat meal, poultry byproducts, blood meal and soybean meal. The results showed that fishmeal (especially fish meal rich in methionine and lysine) Brought a nutritional advantage. The authors also point out the role of lysine in livestock immunity. Fish meal provides a very favorable nutrient species for terrestrial animal feed, and there are no common disadvantages of plant feed, such as anti-nutritional factors.


However, fishmeal not only provides a lot of nutrients, but also rich in vitamins and minerals, with high efficiency. In addition, it is important to compare these factors with other feed ingredients. One of the areas is based on the lowest cost of natural protein feed recipes that may require additional synthetic amino acids to meet the specific nutritional needs of livestock (Beski, Swick & Iji, 2015). This is particularly true for lysine, but also to other amino acids such as methionine and tryptophan.

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The attractiveness and palatability of feed is also an important factor in the nutrition of juvenile animals, and the quick assurance of feed attractiveness and palatability is one of the most important aspects of livestock farming. This is important for weaned piglets because the piglets at the weaning season are subjected to three pressures of nutrition, psychology and the environment. The authors reviewed the literature that emphasized several studies that used fishmeal for feed, and the results showed that livestock consumption was increased and the rate of growth was accelerated. It has been shown that fishmeal also has an advantage in catering to broiler flavors (hence feed consumption) (Karimi, 2006).


Omega-3 fatty acids and health benefits


Articles on the benefits of human consumption of omega-3 fatty acids are everywhere and are on the rise. IFFO's partner organization GOED (EPA and DHA Omega-3 Global Organization) reported that 80% of the papers published in about 30,000 or 30,000 academic papers so far have pointed out that the consumption of EPA and DHA (Nichols et al., 2016). Thus, there is substantial evidence to support the benefits of fish oil associated with EPA and DHA, in particular anti-inflammatory properties. The benefits of human beings are extensive, including a positive impact on cardiovascular health, immune function, neurodevelopment and mental health, based on a requirement that comes from our evolutionary history and the size of the brain with Homo sapiens related. Homo sapiens are larger in size than other primates and terrestrial animals (Bradbury, 2011).


In order to improve the level of consumption of EPA and DHA, the use of fish oil was studied to increase the omega-3 content in the meat of pigs (Leskanich et al., 1997) and poultry (Rymer and Givens, 2005). The study also investigated the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on diets in pregnant diets (Fritsche et al., 1993). Although there are real drivers of omega-3 fatty acid consumption in the population, the use of these ingredients in feed also has important livestock health and production factors. Omega-3 fatty acids have proven to be a direct benefit for hogs and poultry, similar to the benefits of omega-3 fatty acids. (Murray et al., 1991; Murray et al., 1993; Wang et al., 2002), the use of antibiotics in animal growth may have an impact on human drugs, And is regarded as "one of the greatest threats to mankind" (O'Neill, 2015), at this time, it is necessary to maximize the resistance of livestock and reduce dependence on chemotherapeutic agents. Omega-3 fatty acids are also beneficial to livestock stress (Carroll, 2004), which is also associated with immunity and the ability of livestock to respond to pathogens. These benefits also have the potential to reduce stress and disease rates and increase the survival rate of livestock, and thus have important value in these breeding systems.


On the whole, fishmeal and fish oil can not only be used to provide natural protein, fat and dietary energy in terrestrial animal feed. From this point of view, they may serve as functional raw materials for the growth and health of livestock, so their value is greater than most other feed ingredients.